A hitherto unknown fossil hominid lived on a remote island, possibly surviving to the beginning of recorded history, while our ancestors spread across the world. Nicknamed a “hobbit,” the small hominid had only one-third our brain capacity. Some anthropologists, like University of Pittsburgh’s Jeffrey Schwartz, dispute whether the little guys, who appear to have used tools and built fires, belong in Homo, but Homo floresiensis remains a major discovery. Details here